For other people with the same name, see Sai Kumar (disambiguation).
|Born||(1963-04-14) 14 April 1963 (age 54)|
|Spouse(s)||Prasanna Kumari (1988–2008)|
Bindu Panicker (2009–present)
Saikumar (born 14 April 1963), also credited as Sai Kumar, is a veteran Indian film actor known for his villainous roles in Malayalam films.He is the son of Malayalam actor Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair.
Saikumar is the only son of the yesteryear actor Kottarakkara Sreedharan Nair and Vijayalakshmi Amma. He has seven sisters, five elder and two younger. He was first married to Prasanna Kumari, but their marriage collapsed. They have a daughter named Vaishnavi from this marriage. He later married actress Bindu Panicker in 2009.
Saikumar started his career in cinema as a child artist in Vidarunna Mottukal. He started his career in theatres. He was offered the lead role in the film Swathi Thirunal, but it was later done by Anant Nag. He made his debut in the blockbuster Ramji Rao Speaking (1989). It was directed by two debutantes, Siddique and Lal (Siddique-Lal), and had debutant actors Saikumar and Rekha in the lead. Saikumar debuted in the 1977 film Vidarunna Mottukal as a child artist. He started his career with comedy roles, and gradually moved to character roles. He won the Kerala State Film Award for Second Best Actor for his performance in the 2007 film Anandabhairavi.
The success of the film helped him to earn a lot of opportunities in the next few years. He has done leading roles in a few films such as Sauhradam, Thudarkkatha, Khoshayathra, Anantha Vrithantham, Thooval Sparsam etc. But in that age of comedy, he could not make an impact as a hero, while Mukesh, Jagadeesh and Siddique were cast in low-budget movies. Saikumar remained active in the industry with supporting, character and negative roles in films including In Harihar Nagar, Saandram, Makkal Mahalmyam, Griha Pravesam and Ayushkalam. The sequel to Ramji Rao Speaking; Mannar Mathai Speaking was a blockbuster of 1995. This time Mukesh played the lead role. His villain role in Mammootty's 1996 blockbuster Hitler was noted. This earned him the reputation of acting the intelligent villain. Saikumar's real talent was shown once again in the year 2004 in the film Sethuramayyar CBI. He wisely recreated the sound modulation and mannerisms of the late actor Sukumaran, because the character which Saikumar had done was the son of "Inspector Devadas" in the film Oru CBI Diary Kurippu.
Saikumar's golden period started in the late 1990s. He was cast in the super hit Aaraam Thampuran by Shaji Kailas where he played the close friend of hero acted by the Malayalam film star Mohanlal. Then he became the inevitable ingredient of all the superstar movies. He played villain to Mohanlal in Narasimham (2000), Thandavam (2001) and Chathurangam (2001). His prominence was evident from the posters of Thandavam, where his pictures were printed the same size as Mohanlal's. In movies such as Valliettan and Vesham he played villain to Mammootty. In the Dileep movie Kunjikkoonan (2002), he appeared in a completely different get-up of a cruel Goonda, which was much acclaimed.
2005 was a very good year for Saikumar in which he acted in Rajamanikyam, Mammootty's mega-hit where he played an older man. This made the directors rethink his range of characters. In Suresh Gopi's comeback film Bharathchandran I.P.S., he played the villain. He described the role as an anti-hero, not a villain, since he leads the story in the first 45 minutes until Suresh Gopi appears. He also played the supporting role as DYSP Pothen in the Suresh Gopi hit The Tiger.
He lent his voice for Sathyaraj in Aagathan and also dubbed for Thiagarajan in Thilakkam.
In 2007, he won accolades for his performance as a Kathakali artist and the father of a highly talented but ailing son in Anandabhairavi. Director Vinayan described him as talented as Mohanlal, which is the best compliment for his acting abilities.
As an actor
As dubbing artist
- Neelaviriyitta Jalakam (Doordarshan)
- Sathi (Dooradarshan)
- Vajram (Asianet)
- Silence (Asianet)
- Swantham (Asianet)
- Kayamkulam Kochunni (surya TV)
- Omanathinkal Pakshi (Asianet)
- Srimahabhagavatham (Asianet)
- Vishudha Thomasleeha (Asianet)
- Pazhassiraaja (Surya TV)
- Jagratha (Amritha TV)
Spencer (1888) named Lake Algonquin and its beaches and presented a generalized drawing of its extent in Ontario (Spencer, 1891). Gilbert (1889) recognized its terminal outlet at North Bay eastward to the Ottawa valley. Taylor (1893) described several raised beach features northeast of North Bay and presented barometric elevations for them, and later named the Nipissing beach (Taylor, 1894). Goldthwait (1910), with more accurate instrumental levelling, determined revised elevations (about 9‑14 m higher) for Taylor’s North Bay shorelines. Taylor (1896) and Goldthwait (1910) noted that the northernmost highest shorelines and limits of submergence did not conform to the slope of the main Algonquin beach extrapolated from the south, but instead indicated lower shoreline elevations and derived gradients near North Bay. The shoreline features at North Bay described by Taylor (1893) and Goldthwait (1910), later were destroyed by gravel pit operations and airport construction.
The succession of lowering water levels marked by beaches associated with the draining of Lake Algonquin was named by Stanley (1936: Wyebridge, Penetang, Cedar Point, and Payette), Deane (1950: Ardtrea, Upper and Lower Orillia), and Hough (1958: Sheguiandah, Korah). Lang (1943) noted apparent shoreline features on air photos east of North Bay and northeast of Lake Talon, but did not visit the features nor survey them. However, he reported air photo parallax measurements of eight terraces or beaches between 289.5 and 384 m. These features, located remotely and far from bench marks, remain isolated and unsurveyed.
Chapman (1954) identified two outlets for lower Algonquin water levels across the highlands south of North Bay at Fossmill and Amable du Fond. He also noted and illustrated in his Figure 3 the decline below the extrapolated main Algonquin beach of the highest shore features northward. Chapman (1975) described lake features east of Georgian Bay to North Bay and reported elevations for a few shoreline features near North Bay.
Harrison (1972) identified several additional outlets to the east, south of North Bay, and correlated their use as outlets with the various named declining Algonquin levels. He used a transit to survey four shoreline features and an altimeter for others in a few sequences north, south and east of North Bay. Lewis and Anderson (1989) compiled Great Lakes data on water levels and chronology, including some features of the North Bay area. From water flow calculations in the Mattawa area they postulated large water level fluctuations reflecting floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Barlow-Ojibway into low level, post-Algonquin lakes Chippewa, Stanley, and Hough in the Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Georgian Bay basins, respectively.
Geological and topographic setting of study area
The City of North Bay is situated on the northeast shore of Lake Nipissing (195 m), an irregularly shaped water body 70 km west-east by 25 km north-south and less than 20 m deep. Its long axis parallels a fault-controlled lowland extending east from Georgian Bay which is floored by Ordovician carbonate and clastic sediments dipping gently southwest into the Michigan structural basin. The lowland trends eastward as an extension of the fault-controlled Ottawa-St. Lawrence graben. Local bedrock is Precambrian high-grade gneisses and plutons of the Grenville Province (1.7‑1.2 ), bounded to the northwest along the Grenville Front by the lower-grade metasediments of the Southern Province Huronian sequence (2.5‑2.1 ) (Lumbers, 1971). Small Cambrian intrusive complexes occur as islands and along the eastern shore of Lake Nipissing. Small outliers of Ordovician limestone and dolostone also occur on islands in Lake Nipissing and along the south shore (Colquhoun, 1958; Lumbers, 1971).
The bedrock in the lowland is partly mantled with till and varved silt and clay, which form a belt of deeper drift extending westward along the north shore of Georgian Bay and Lake Huron to Sault Ste. Marie. Ice flow was regionally southwestward (Boissonneau, 1968). On the marginal slopes of the lowland, wave-cut shorecliffs and beach ridges sporadically record the former presence of a succession of water levels formed as the ice retreated from the area.
The lowland has elevations of about 200 to 250 m west and south of Lake Nipissing but is constricted eastward of the lake by encroaching hills; the Lake Hough-Nipissing outlet sill is at the east end of Trout Lake at near 212 m (Goldthwait, 1910). Uplands to the north and south rise eastward to about 400 m, but continue rising southward toward Algonquin Park to over 500 m. Passages eastward across the southern highlands, identified by Chapman (1954) and Harrison (1972), provided the successive outlets for dropping levels of glacial Lake Algonquin during northeastward ice retreat. The isostatically depressed North Bay sill allowed post-Algonquin water levels to drop far below present Lake Huron level (177 m) to form the low water phases of the Lake Michigan (Lake Chippewa), Lake Huron (Lake Stanley), and Georgian Bay (Lake Hough) basins (Karrow and Calkin, 1985).
Survey profile sites
Profiles were surveyed at a dozen sites (Fig. 1; Table I). They are described in order from west to east, north, then south.
North and northwest of Lake Nipissing, a well marked low shorebluff lies to the north of and roughly parallels Trans Canada Highway 17. It extends westward up the Veuve River valley beyond Verner, but is less distinct as the valley narrows. Three profiles (NBB, NBK, NBA) near Verner, Cache Bay, and Sturgeon Falls, respectively, yielded elevations of 212 to 214 m for the base of the shorebluff. Another profile on the continuation of this feature, in central North Bay west of Algonquin Avenue, also provided an elevation at the shorebluff base of 212 m (site NBD).
Lewis and Anderson (1989) showed a shorecliff in northern North Bay, which they referred to as the Gateway shore. However, their description of the type site location (Lewis and Anderson, 1989: p. 122), as matched with tree patterns of their Figure 5A, is erroneous, as it is at Terrace Lawn Cemetery, not St. Mary’s Cemetery as stated; the latter is two blocks farther north and lacks clear shoreline features. Three determinations of the base of this bluff (profile NBH) averaged 235.7 m, consistent with the 236 m of Lewis and Anderson (1989). The area around the ski club hill, northeast of the Gateway site, was examined for shoreline features, but only a few unmodified fragments were noted.
A series of benches and bluffs occur on the high forested slope northwest of Trout Lake, in the northeastern part of North Bay. This profile (NBG) records a weak bench (bluff base) at 265.2 m, a stronger bluff base at 283.2 m, another weak bluff base at 292.5 m, and a strong bluff base at 306.7 m. The slope flattens above 319 m but no further shore features were seen.
Profile NBJ extended east from Trout Lake onto low terraces north of Highway 63. The area has been somewhat disturbed by gravel extraction, but appears to record delta edges and bluff bases at 225.3, 230, and 235.3 m. East of the North Bay airport is an ice-contact stratified drift complex heavily disturbed by long-continued gravel extraction. This complex appears to line up along the trend of an esker extending into the area from the north. The area likely contained some significant shoreline morphology in the altitudinal range of 310 to 360 m but is now too disturbed, as well as far from bench marks. The NBG sequence trends northeast into the low end of this area. Similarly, west of the airport is another heavily disturbed area (gravel pitting) in the range of 300 to 360 m that could not be surveyed, but a profile along Highway 11 (NBC) covers part of this range. This area is where Taylor (1893) first described raised beaches near North Bay which were later surveyed by Goldthwait (1910), so some data are available.
North of North Bay, along Highway 11, profile NBC records a strong shorebluff base at three places averaging 345.8 m with a weak lower one at 339.5 m. This shoreline trends northwest and divides higher ground to the northeast from a broad area of lower elevation and relief to the west, likely flooded by shallow glacial lake waters. A large embayment is recognizable on topographic maps, with lacustrine clay extending well north of Sturgeon Falls along the valley of the Sturgeon River. This area, between North Bay, Marten River (north of Sturgeon Falls), and Crystal River (northwest of Crystal Falls), and between Highways 11 and 64, has poor access and, as yet, surveys are not practical. Knowledge of this area would be much enhanced by systematic mapping of Quaternary geology, linking mapping of the Sudbury area (Burwasser, 1979; Barnett and Bajc, 1999) with that at North Bay (Harrison, 1972).
The highest shore feature of this study was determined on a large, flat-topped delta northeast of North Bay along Highway 63 beyond Balsam Creek (profile NBF). This delta, some four kilometres long and 2.5 km wide, heads to the northeast at Antoine Lake and has a small, steep-sided wet kettle about 20 m deep near its head beside the highway, with dating potential for a minimum age on delta formation. The front (southwest) edge of the delta top has an elevation of 359.2 m and at the south edge it is 358.4 m. Shallow channels one to two metres deep are evident on the delta top.
Much of the area south of Lake Nipissing has poor access with low relief, rough, bedrock-controlled topography. The prominent 212 m shorebluff so easily traced along the north side of the lake is seldom visible in the south. Only in the southeast was a measurable low shorebluff found along Highway 654 between Callander and Nipissing in profile NBL at 210.7 m.
Harrison (1972) described shoreline features on two forested hills southwest and southeast of Powassan (south of North Bay), which he referred to as Nipissing Ridge and Graham Lake Hill, respectively. He determined barometric elevations for several features on the north slope of Graham Lake Hill. This site was visited in the present study, but few good features were seen to survey, and it was far from bench marks. Graham Lake Hill is not isolated but is attached at high elevation to higher ground to the south.
In contrast to Graham Lake Hill, Nipissing Ridge is adjacent to bench marks along Highway 534. Harrison (1972) ran one transit survey (HT) up the east side of the hill, determining four shorebluff elevations of 298.4, 308.5, 320.0, and 332.5 m. He measured additional features by barometer from 280.4 to 344.4 m on the north, east, and south sides, as this hill has low ground all around it which isolates it from other high ground to the south. During the present study, an east-to-west traverse was surveyed across the top of Nipissing Ridge (profile NBI). Surveyed shoreline features overlap with those surveyed by transit and altimeter by Harrison (1972). A weak shorebluff was at 319.7 m (HT, 320 m). The crest of a gravel bar at a pit south of Ski Hill Road was at 335.6 and 335.5 m and was traced to the highest surveyed Harrison shorebluff (HT, 332.5 m). The crest of a bar south of Ski Hill Road was at 346.5 and 346.0 m, a possible weak shorebluff was at 345 m, the crest of a bar was at 346.1 m, another was at 346.3 m, and still another was at 338.1 m. Although the highest surveyed shoreline features (bars) were at about 346 m, elevations along Ski Hill Road rise to over 360 m. Whether the bouldery terrain had been submerged was not clear, but no definite evidence of lake action was seen higher than about 346 m.
The most extensive series of shoreline features surveyed in this project was south of South Bay of Lake Nipissing (profile NBE) near the settlement of Nipissing along Kings Road, off Highway 534 just south of its intersection with Highway 654. This site is outside the area mapped by Harrison (1972) and is west of Nipissing Ridge. The Kings Road sequence consisted of a probable shorebluff base at 220.1 m, another at 243.9 m, another at 260.1 and 260.2 m, base of a low subdued bluff at 299.4 and 299.8 m, base of shorebluff at 309.4 m (two places), bluff base at 321.4 m (two places), crest of pitted gravel bar near 334.6 m, bluff base at 337.2 and 337.3 m, and a bluff base at 344.8 and 345.0 m. The last was the highest shore feature seen on this profile, with bare rock rising above this to 351.2 m.
Harrison (1972) also measured by altimeter several bluff bases on the Rutherglen moraine, about half way between North Bay and Mattawa. The site was visited in this study but not surveyed because of the distance from bench marks over hilly terrain. Harrison (1972: p. 18) determined bluff bases as having elevations of 291.4, 301.1, 311.5, and 316.4 m.