The Ideal City (Italian: Città ideale) is the title given to three strikingly similar Italian Renaissance paintings with unresolved attribution. Being kept at three different places they are most commonly referred to by their location: The Ideal city of Urbino, Baltimore, and Berlin. Hubert Damisch who has written at length about the paintings refers to them as the "Urbino perspectives" or "panels". The three paintings are dated to the late 15th c. and most probably they have different authors but various attribution have been advanced for each without any consensus. There is also a discussion about the purpose of the paintings as they are all in an unusual elongated format (approx. 2.0 x 0.7m). In 2012 The Baltimore and Urbino panels were shown at a joint exhibition, with the Berlin painting being presented in a copy as the original is too fragile to be shipped abroad.
The Ideal City of Urbino
The Ideal City stored in Urbino was formerly attributed to Piero della Francesca, then to Luciano Laurana, Francesco di Giorgio Martini or Melozzo da Forlì.
The Ideal City of Baltimore
|The Ideal City|
|Artist||Attributed to Fra Carnevale|
|Year||between circa 1480 and circa 1484|
|Type||oil and tempera on panel|
|Dimensions||77.4 cm × 220. cm (30.5 in × 86.6 in)|
|Location||The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore|
The Ideal City stored in Baltimore is a 15th-century painting usually attributed to the architect and artist Fra Carnevale. The painting was most likely executed for the Ducal Palace, Urbino of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino. There is no indisputable evidence for this, but Carnevale was one of three architects used for renovations to the palace. Furthermore, in an inventory of the palace completed in 1599 there is mention of a "long rectangular painting depicting an antique but beautiful perspective from the hand of Carnavale". The panels might have been spalliere, forming part of a decorative scheme set into the wainscoting or furnishings, a style common in Italy in the late 15th century.
However, the painting is attributed by others to Francesco di Giorgio Martini, partly due to the latter's greater significance at the Urbino court and because the painting refers to architectural themes he refers to, derived from Leon Battista Alberti's slightly earlier published treatise, in his own architectural treatise.
The painting consists of a city landscape, glowing in the morning light, nearly empty of human activity. There are five structures that define the space. At the center is a Roman triumphal arch, reminiscent of the Arch of Constantine in Rome, whose prominent position speaks to the importance of military leadership. Federico was a leading military commander of his day, but the place on the arch for dedication has been left blank. The amphitheater, is modeled after the Colosseum in Rome, and could represent the importance of providing entertainment for the well-being of the people. The octagonal building is the only structure not specifically Roman, being modeled after the Baptistery in Florence. However, there is an argument that the original structure incorporated a Roman temple. These ancient structures are joined by two modern buildings of the time. The one on the left is modeled after mid-15th century Florentine palaces of the Medici family, it is representative of a residence appropriate to the ruling class. The building to the right with the arches and cloth covered screens is also thought to be a residence. Visible in the background are other 15th-century buildings, including a warehouse. In the foreground, there are four allegorical sculptures, each representing the personification of virtue; Justice with her scales, Moderation with a pitcher of water to mix with wine, Liberality with a cornucopia, and Courage with a column. The fountain at the center, featuring a bronzed winged Sprite, represents a functional source of water. Providing patrons with good water was a sign of magnanimity.
The Ideal City of Berlin
The Ideal City stored in Berlin has been attributed tentatively to Francesco di Giorgio Martini and dated eventually as 1477.
The Ideal City celebrates the values in a well-ordered society, architecture stands as a metaphor for good government. The illusion of space is achieved using a mathematical perspective system developed in Florence. The receding lines that establish spatial relationships converge at a central point, located in the middle of the city gate.
In popular culture
In a scene from the 1995 thriller, Twelve Monkeys, Bruce Willis' character looks at The Ideal City in the Walters Art Museum.
The Ideal City is one of the paintings available to buy virtually inside the video game Assassin's Creed 2.
Off the Wall
Currently, The Ideal City is being featured in Off the Wall, an open-air exhibition on the streets of Baltimore, Maryland. A reproduction of the painting, the original is part of The Walters Art Museum collection, will be on display at Hopkins Plaza. The National Gallery in London began the concept of bringing art out of doors in 2007 and the Detroit Institute of Art introduced the concept in the U.S.. The Off the Wall reproductions of the Walters' paintings are done on weather-resistant vinyl and include a description of the painting and a QR code for smart phones.
- ^ abDamisch H., The origin of perspective (transl. by J.Goodman) Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 1994. ISBN 9780262041393
- ^Massimiliano Russano, "Ideal City" paintings express Renaissance concepts, The Epoch Times, June 20-6, 2012
- ^Keneth Clark, Piero della Francesca, London, 1952
- ^ abc[Hansen, M.S and Spicer, J.A, Masterpieces of Italian Painting, The Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 2005, pp.62-67]
- ^[Zafran, E.M., Fifty Old Master Paintings from the Walters Art Gallery, The Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1988, p. 42]
- ^Christoph Luitpold Frommel, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, London, Thames and Hudson, 2007, p.59
- ^The painting is actually 124 × 234 cm but the space above the lower edge presents a uniform plinth.
- ^The Walters Art Museum - The Ideal City
- ^Maryland Sites Attract Hollywood
- ^Walters Art Museum - Off the Wall
- ^[Smith, T., Walters Art Museum goes of the wall, The Baltimore Sun, September 11, 2012]
Art in Tuscany | Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists | Piero della Francesca
Giorgio Vasari | Le vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a' tempi nostri | Piero della Francesca
All modern scholarship concerning Piero della Francesca derives from the pioneering work of Roberto Longhi. Longhi's works, which date from 1914 to 1942, are in Italian, but the fruits of his discoveries have been incorporated in English-language works. Kenneth Clark's readable monograph is Piero della Francesca (1951; 2d ed. 1969). Also useful is Piero Bianconi, All the Paintings of Piero della Francesca (trans. 1962). Bernard Berenson wrote interesting essays on Piero in his Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance (1897; 2d rev. ed. 1909) and Piero della Francesca; or, The Ineloquent in Art (1954).
Giorgio Vasari | Lives of the Most Eminent Painters Sculptors and Architects, Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca On-line: Story of the True Cross, San Francesco, Arezzo (Italy) | Aronberg Lavin, M., et al., Piero Della Francesca On-line: Story of the True Cross, San Francesco, Arezzo (Italy): Figure 7. In J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and the Web 2009: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Published March 31, 2009. | www.archimuse.com
Film in Toscana | Arezzo, Sansepolcro and Monterchi, the homeland of Piero della Francesca
In the footsteos of Piero della Francesca | Piero della Francesca in central Italy
Piero della Francesca and his landscapes | The balconies is Piero della Francesca
Marcello Simonetta, The Montefeltro Conspiracy: A Renaissance Mystery Decoded, New York, Doubleday, 2008. (L'enigma Montefeltro. Milano: Rizzoli, 2008.)
In Florence, on April 26, 1478, Lorenzo de Medici, soon to be dubbed “the Magnificent,” and his brother, Giuliano, were set upon by assassins during Sunday mass. Giuliano died, but Lorenzo survived and became one of the most accomplished of Renaissance figures as a patron of the arts and a skillful leader of the Florentine Republic. The assassination attempt, generally called “the Pazzi conspiracy,” was immediately blamed on a rival Florentine family, the Pazzi. Simonetta, a professor of Italian history and literature, has uncovered another layer of the plot. Aided by a recently decoded letter found in an archive in Urbino, Simonetta indicts Frederico de Montefeltro, the widely admired Duke of Urbino. Montefeltro, often referred to as “the Light of Italy,” was a classics scholar, a humanist, and a supposed friend of the Medici family. He was also a tough, ruthless mercenary quite at home in the cutthroat milieu of fifteenth-century Italian politics.
Lavin, M.A. , Piero della Francesca. London, Phaidon Press, 2002
Marilyn Aronberg Lavin, Piero Della Francesca: San Francesco, Arezzo (The Great Fresco Cycles of the Renaissance), New York, George Braziller, 1994
Carlo Bertelli, Piero della Francesca, New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 1992
Bertelli's densely reasoned monographic study of the early Renaissance master Piero della Francesca proffers a plethora of provocative but not equally compelling insights into the artist's life, work, and style. An excellent complement to Bertelli's work is Ronald Lightbown's Piero della Francesca ( LJ 7/92). While scholars will need to ponder the somewhat divergent conclusions of both authors, general readers are better served by Lightbown's engaged evocation of the works themselves and by his coherent arguments and lucid prose.
Ronald Lightbown, Piero Della Francesca, Abbeville Press, 1992
From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master| The exhibition was organized by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Soprintendenza per il Patrimonio Storico Artistico e Etnoantropologico, Milano.
Two cities—Florence and Urbino; a key moment in the history of Italian Renaissance art; 55 works by some of the greatest painters and sculptors, including Filippo Lippi, Domenico Veneziano, Piero della Francesca, and Luca della Robbia, as well as eccentric paintings by little-known masters; and the identification of a heretofore mysterious personality who practiced painting and sculpture and was associated with the celebrated court of Urbino: these are the ingredients of this jewel-like exhibition.
The exhibition catalogue is made possible by Bracco, the Oceanic Heritage Foundation, and the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc.
Machtelt Israëls: "Piero at Home: The Art of Piero della Francesca" | www.frick.org
During the early Renaissance, Piero della Francesca’s artistic talents were highly sought after by patrons across the Italian peninsula but nowhere more so than in his hometown of Borgo San Sepolcro. Israëls' lecture explores how Piero gradually transformed the art of painting by applying his pioneering pictorial imagination to the challenge of three gothic polyptychs and by introducing Renaissance format paintings into the domestic interior with hisVirgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels and Nativity of Christ (The National Gallery, London).
The Private Life of a Masterpiece was a BBC arts documentary series which told the stories behind great works of art. The series reveals the full and fascinating stories behind famous works of art, not just how they came to be created, but also how they influenced others and came to have a life of their own in the modern world.
The Private Life of a Masterpiece, episode 22 | Piero della Francesca, The Resurrection
Famous texts | Aldous Huxley, The Best Picture”
Film in Tuscany | Arezzo, Sansepolcro and Monterchi, the homeland of Piero della Francesca