Genmodifierade Djur Argument Essay

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Så här gör man genmodifierade djur

Det finns flera olika metoder för att genetiskt modifiera ett djur, till exempel pronukleär mikroinjektion. Alla metoder fungerar inte på alla djur, därför har forskare tagit fram flera metoder.

Precis som för bakterier måste man konstruera en DNA-molekyl eller gen att sätta in i arvsmassan hos djuret. Denna DNA-molekyl kan till exempel sprutas in i cellkärnan (pronukleär mikroinjektion).

Flera olika sorters DNA-molekyler eller gen-konstruktioner kan användas vid genmodifieringen, till exempel BAC, YAC, cDNA, shRNA och miRNA. BAC, YAC och cDNA kan användas för att tillföra en ny gen, medan shRNA och miRNA kan användas för att stänga av en gen. Gen-konstruktionen måste finnas i en så kallad vektor eller plasmid, precis som när man genmodifierar mikroorganismer. En vektor är en ringformad DNA-molekyl. Ursprungligen en plasmid. I denna ring kan man sätt in DNA, till exempel den gen som man vill sätt in i musen.

Två sätt att genmodifiera möss

Här beskriver vi två sätt att genmodifiera möss. På liknande sätt kan man genmodifiera andra däggdjur.

Pronukleär mikroinjektion

Pronukleär mikroinjektion är den äldsta metoden att genmodifiera möss och har använts sedan 1980-talet.

  • En gen, som kodar för det protein som ska tillverkas, sätts in i en vektor.
  • Vektorn sprutas in i cellkärnan i ett befruktat ägg med hjälp av en mycket tunn nål. Detta görs i mikroskop.
  • Äggen som överlever behandlingen sätts in i en mus.
  • Musungarna som föds DNA-testas. Förhoppningsvis bär någon av ungarna på genen som man ville sätta in.
  • Man avlar på de möss som bär transgenen för att få fram homozygota individer.

Genmodifiering av möss. Pronukleär injektion. Copyright: Gunilla Elam.

 

Genmodifierade embryonala stamceller

Den andra metoden som används för att genmodifiera möss är att genmodifiera embryonala stamceller och sätta in dem i blastocyster. Denna metod belönades med Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin år 2007.

Genmodifiering av möss. Genmodifierade embryonala stamceller. Copyright: Gunilla Elam.

Genmodifierade möss i forskning

Vanligtvis genmodifierar man möss för att förstå hur en viss gen fungerar eller hur en viss sjukdom uppstår hos oss människor.

  • Genen kan stängas av. Det brukar kallas knock-out eller loss-of-function. Då studerar man vad som händer när den normala funktionen försvinner.
  • Ibland tillförs en ny gen. Det kallas knock-in eller gain-of-function. I dessa fall är man intresserad av att veta hur en ny gen fungerar.
  • Det går också att kombinera de två metoderna. Först förstör man den fungerade genen (knock-out) och studerar vad som händer. Sedan tillför man en fungerande gen. Detta brukar kallas gene-rescue och man får så kallade återställningslinjer.

Det finns många fler sätt att modifiera en gen än att bara stänga av och sätt på den. Till exempel så kan man göra små förändringar i en gen så att i stället för att stänga av den helt så kan den vara uttryckt på olika nivåer (svagt, medel eller starkt).

Det går också att förändra arvsmassan hos möss med hjälp av strålning eller kemikalier.

Växter, mikroorganismer och andra djur genmodifieras på liknande sätt för att vi ska lära oss mer om hur olika gener fungerar.

Man måste ha etiska tillstånd för att genmodifiera möss i forskning

Inom forskningen räknas genmodifierade möss som försöksdjur. Alltså måste man ha ett etiskt tillstånd och tillstånd för att ha försöksdjur för att göra och ha genmodifierade möss.

I Sverige kan vi inte genmodifiera människor, men genterapi är tillåtet

I Sverige får vi enligt lag inte lov att genmodifiera människor så att egenskapen går i arv. I USA diskuterar forskare om det är rätt eller fel att genmodifiera människor så att egenskapen går i arv.

Däremot är det tillåtet med genterapi på människa, så länge inte genförändringen går i arv.

(uppdaterad 2017-09-21)

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