Consider the following argument:
"There are numerous mentally ill offenders in our prisons. This is shameful. The only point of punishment is deterrence. But to be deterred one needs to be a rational person, and a rational person is a person who understands the likely consequences of his or her actions. Mentally ill offenders are, by definition, less than fully rational. So they cannot be deterred, and should not be in prison."
1. Which of the following is an unarticulated assumption of the argument?
(a) There are numerous mentally ill offenders in our prisons.
(b) Imprisoning the mentally ill is shameful.
(c) Imprisonment is a form of punishment.
(d) Rational people understand the likely consequences of their actions.
(e) Those who cannot be deterred should not be in prison.
2. Which of the following is a flaw in the argument?
(a) It does not tell us anything about the definition of mental illness that it is using.
(b) It starts from the assumption that we should be ashamed of our prisons.
(c) It suggests that we have to embark on a very troublesome review of the way that imprisonment is used as a punishment.
(d) It does not allow for the possibility that some people who were not mentally ill when they offended might become mentally ill in prison.
(e) It relies on statistics.
3. Which of the following can we most reliably infer that the author of the argument believes?
(a) People should not be sent to prison except as a last resort.
(b) Mentally ill people should be treated in hospital for their illnesses.
(c) Offenders who are not mentally ill should always be punished by imprisonment.
(d) All offences have consequences.
(e) The point of punishment is not rehabilitation.
Consider the following passage:
"As the child grows up, the subjection of his conscience to the mind of the adult seems to him less legitimate and, except in cases of arrested moral development, ... unilateral respect tends of itself to grow into mutual respect and to the state of cooperation which constitutes the normal equilibrium. It is obvious that since in our modern societies the common morality which regulates the relations of adults to each other is that of cooperation, the development of child morality will be accelerated by the examples that surround it."
4. Which of the following most accurately captures the main idea of the passage?
(a) Children who are not set good moral examples will remain in a condition of arrested development.
(b) It is illegitimate for adults to rely on their authority in dealing with older children.
(c) The only way to run a modern society is by cooperation.
(d) Modern societies tend, by the kind of moral examples they set, to speed up the moral development of children.
(e) Young children do not respect anyone or anything.
5. Which of the following claims is made by the author of the passage?
(a) It is normal for adult human beings to cooperate.
(b) It is not respectful to defer to another person's authority.
(c) A young child will not learn to cooperate without the subjection of his or her conscience to the mind of an adult.
(d) Adults in modern societies always respect each other.
(e) Children develop in all sorts of different ways.
The Law National Aptitude Test (LNAT) is the main admission test for law studies in the UK. It is managed by LNAT Consortium Ltd and is administered to candidates by Pearson VUE. Law schools use the LNAT to screen candidates alongside other methods of selection, such as A Levels (or their global equivalent) and interviews. The LNAT carries a different weight depending on each school's policy.
The LNAT does not measure knowledge in law or any other subject, in an attempt to minimise the impact of personal background, education and other socio-economic variables on the selection process. Instead, its purpose is to assess key aptitudes required in law studies and practice:
- Advanced verbal reasoning skills
- Making logical inferences and deductions
- Distinguishing between fact and opinion or speculation
- Determining what is relevant and what is not
- Identification of strong and weak arguments
The test is two hours and a quarter long and is divided into two sections: multiple choice questions and an essay. Both parts are entirely computerised, though you are provided with a pen and some paper to make notes.
Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions
The first section consists of 42 questions based on 12 argumentative passages, three to four questions each. This part is 95 minutes long (1 hour and 35 minutes). A computer checks the answers and generates your LNAT score. The highest possible mark is 42.
Each question has only one correct answer and relies solely on the passage. Any other information you may have on the subject is irrelevant and should be ignored as you are choosing your answer. Some questions will be straightforward while others may seem more ambiguous. The test aims to assess how well you cope with different situations and knowledge quality, but the answer is always in the passage; you are never expected to guess or speculate. Bearing this in mind should help you focus when you are suddenly unsure about a question.
When you do choose an answer, make sure it is indeed the best choice out of all other options. Sometimes one of the answer choices will be very close to the real answer, but not quite there. As wrong answers are not being deducted, you should guess when you cannot find the answer or run out of time.
Section B: Essay
When the first section is over, you will be given an essay writing task. You will have 40 minutes to choose and discuss one subject out of a list of three.
The purpose of the essay is to see how well you make an argument. You will need to make sure you have a strong reason supporting your statements. This does not mean, however, that you will have to know everything about the topic you will be writing about. They are looking for logic, not real facts. You are allowed to make as many assumptions as you like, as long as you do not contradict yourself. You should also state what those assumptions are, so that readers will know how to follow your line of thought.
Essays are expected to be about 500-600 words long, and no more than 750. Significantly shorter essays will not be highly evaluated, and longer ones might be completely ignored. A word counter will be available on screen as you are typing to help you track your progress.
Make sure to use proper language and that your arguments are clear and well-structured. It is a good idea to plan your essay in advance, so you know exactly what points you will be trying to make and how to connect between them in a concise manner with clear introduction, middle and conclusion.
When Do I Get My Results?
Candidates may only sit the test once in a September-to-June cycle. Results cannot be carried over from one year to the next, so you must take the test in the same UCAS year in which you are applying.
Unlike the multiple choice questions, the LNAT essay is not marked by the assessment centre. It is sent along with the LNAT score to universities you choose 24 hours after you finish the test. If you take the test up until 15 January 2015 you will receive your LNAT score in early February. If you take the test later you will receive your results in early July. It is important to note that some universities have their own deadlines and require you to sit the test very early on the testing cycle. They will not consider your application if you take the test later in the year.
Which Law Schools Use LNAT?
UK undergraduate law programmes:
- University of Birmingham
- University of Bristol
- Durham University
- University of Glasgow
- KING'S College, London
- The University of Nottingham
- University of Oxford
- SOAS University of London
- UCL Faculty of Laws
- Maynooth University
- IE University
Can I Prepare for the LNAT Test?
As stated on the official LNAT website, becoming familiarised with the question types and the overall feel of the test will help your performance. Knowing exactly what to expect is invaluable as it greatly decreases the element of surprise. The less nervous you are on the test, the easier it will be to really focus and perform to the best of your ability. More than that, exercising similar tasks will sharpen the skills required by the test.
Our pack includes a dedicated LNAT-style test complete with explanations and tips, as well as a variety of additional verbal reasoning questions rehearsing the test's important concepts. Practising LNAT multiple choice questions and becoming more familiar with the test style will help you achieve your very best results.
JobTestPrep offer a dedicated LNAT practice pack simulating Section A of the test. We also provide you with additional verbal reasoning practice tests to help you improve the skills required to get a good score on the test. Good luck!
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- Full length LNAT practice test (section A)
- 18 additional verbal reasoning & analysis practice tests
- Study guides and video tutorials
- Explanations & solving tips
- Timed tests with score reports
- Score reports